the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPACT)

The research I did on the Energy
Policy Act of 2005 (EPACT) showed a very diverse and specific pattern
of directing the Secretary of Energy to implement various programs
and alter previous regulatory measures concerning energy production,
research, and usage for the United States of America. I found not six
main provisions, but 12. A summary written by the Congressional
Research Service, a well-respected nonpartisan arm of the Library of
Congress details those provisions and can be found at:

“8/8/2005–Public Law. Energy Policy
Act of 2005 – Sets forth an energy research and development program
covering: (1) energy efficiency; (2) renewable energy; (3) oil and
gas; (4) coal; (5) Indian energy; (6) nuclear matters and security;
(7) vehicles and motor fuels, including ethanol; (8) hydrogen; (9)
electricity; (10) energy tax incentives; (11) hydropower and
geothermal energy; and (12) climate change technology.”

According to Botkin and Keller, in
their textbook Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet,
one of the provisions of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPACT) was to
promote conventional energy sources. Towards that goal, Joe Barton,
republican from Texas wrote into the bill he sponsored (with
co-authors Richard Pombo and William Thomas, both republicans from
California), reductions to royalty payments due the United States by
lessees for domestic oil and gas production. Lessees could withhold
royalties and pay the State 44 cents on the dollar as described in
Section 383 – Subtitle G – Miscellaneous. Section 371
which amends the
Mineral Leasing Act to cite conditions for the reinstatement of oil
and gas leases terminated for certain failure to pay rentals. In
Title IV – Coal ­ Subtitle C – Coal and Related Programs –
Section 431 –
a financial
assistance program is to be implemented to facilitate production.
Coal gasification research and other means of burning fuels more
cleanly will help lead to a sustainable society by reducing the
foreign oil dependency.

Promotion of nuclear power is
addressed in Subtitle C – Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project –
Section 641 –
Which instructs
the Secretary to establish the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project
consisting of design, construction, and operation of a prototype
plant. Existing Nuclear power plants are put under stricter control
and limited to 40 years operation. With improvements in technology
and scholarship grants for study in skill areas related to the
nuclear regulatory commission, we can pass on to future generations
the knowledge and desire to produce cleaner power using less

Encouraging alternative energy is
addressed by Title VII and
Title IX
implementing research
and development in those fields as well as student incentives to
study possible new sources.

In each Title and
section I saw substantial forward thinking to lead us to a
sustainable future. Steps were taken to amend bad policy from the
past that had special interest and government red tape obstructing
operations that provide for our power consumption. Numerous loans and
academic incentives were directed at harnessing new and alternative

Some of the major provisions are discussed in the following list.

1.  Let’s start with promoting conventional
sources of energy. It directed the Secretary of Energy to ease up on domestic
constraints to developing cleaner coal burning through gasification
study projects and allowed some expired oil leases to be re-instated
to reduce foreign demand as well as to increase domestic production.
The old rules were poorly written. The EPACT was more of an amendment
to those.

    2.  It put time constraints on
using old nuclear technology in favor of developing next generation
nuclear projects. The Price-Anderson Amendments Act of 2005 –
included in EPACT, extended the authority of the Nuclear Regulatory
Commission (NRC) when enforcing contractors and licensees in
liability issues. It also provided a means to have funds for
decommissioning facilities and storing wastes, as well as prompting
the Secretary to submit to congress a plan to deal with wastes.

3. Although one section about biomass fuels amended the Biomass
Research and Development Act of 2000 to continue the research funding
that was scheduled to end, many other alternatives were mentioned by
directing the Secretary to conduct programs of renewable energy
research, development, demonstration, and commercial application,
including: (1) solar energy and photovoltaics; (2) wind energy; (3)
geothermal energy; (4) hydropower; (5) ocean and wave energy; and (6)
the combined use of renewable energy technologies with one another
and with other energy technologies, including the combined use of
wind power and coal gasification technologies.

Conservation Measures. One section about
hybrid technology and fuel cells for buses addresses gas mileage restrictions in the future, but what about this
Title I – Energy Efficiency – Subtitle A –
Federal Programs – Section 111 –

Requires the Secretaries of the
Interior, of Commerce, and of Agriculture to seek to: (1) incorporate
energy efficient technologies in public and administrative buildings
associated with management of the National Park System, National
Wildlife Refuge System, National Forest System, National Marine
Sanctuaries System, and other public lands and resources they manage;
and (2) use energy efficient motor vehicles, including those equipped
with biodiesel or hybrid engine technologies, in such

This is where compact fluorescent bulbs, 
energy efficiency criteria consistent with ENERGY STAR® and
FEMP-designated products, tax breaks for citizens, and management
goals for Federal facilities and fleets was addressed. It directed
that all Federal buildings be metered "…for the purposes of
efficient energy use and reduction in the cost of electricity used in
such buildings…" by October 1, 2012. Advanced meters or
metering devices must provide data at least daily and measure the
consumption of electricity at least hourly.

Promotes Research. What about Title IX? This is just one of the smaller sections on research;

Subtitle G – Science

Section 971 –

Directs the Secretary, through the
Office of Science, to conduct research, demonstration, and commercial
application activities in high energy physics, nuclear physics,
biological and environmental research, basic energy sciences,
advanced scientific computing research, and fusion energy sciences,
including support for facilities and infrastructure, education,
outreach, information, analysis, and coordination activities.
Authorizes appropriations for FY2007-FY2009. Authorizes
appropriations for FY2005-FY2009 for integrated bioenergy research
and development, including for training and education targeted to
minority and socially disadvantaged farmers and ranchers.

Provides for Energy Infrastructure
Good job on that one. And
development of hog farm methane, landfill gas production, wave, and
geothermal production methods of marketability, i.e. pipelines for
transport of fuels. This section also covered smart grid technology
where we got our net metering and time-based (smart) metering
services for home conservation and production.


About zitiboat

Keepin' the faith through permaculture and sustainability
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